An early civilization that flourished along the banks of the
*Brahmans – the priestly class
*Kshatriyas – the class of warriors or military executives
*Vaisyas – the industrial class
*Sundras – the service class
*Pariahs – the outcasts or untouchables who were tasked with collecting garbage, burying corpse, and other menial jobs.
Education for the Hindus was of a philosophical and religious nature. The Hindus believed in reincarnation or continuous rebirth.
Reincarnation a person who lives a good life and practices asceticism or simplicity in his/her present life would either go to Nirvana.
Nirvana a place of zest and bliss, a paradise or live a much improved life
Jewish education was religious in nature. It was purely in accordance with the Old Testament of the Bible (through the Mosaic laws given by God).
Talmud acollection of writings containing a full account of Jewish civil and religious laws.
Jews the goal of education was to prepare men to know God and to live peacefully among their fellows.
During the New Testaments period (ca. 4 B.C -100 A.D), schools called synagogues.
Synagogues were established under the rabbis to assist parents in educating their children.
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT
Fellahin or lower class, was undertaken by parents in their homes and in the fields or other places of work through apprenticeship
Egyptians provided the modern world with the basic foundations of education, art, music, literature, mathematics, engineering, architectures, astronomy, geography, geology, medicine and other field.
About 3100 B.C, the Egyptians devised a system of picture writing called hieroglyphics.
Hieroglyphic symbols usually represent a sound or a group of sounds.
This development gave rise to the class known as scribes.
Acribes a group of men trained in the art of writing. The scribe came to be the country’s chroniclers of events.
In Egyptians also excelled in medicine, for they were able to explore human anatomy thoroughly far beyond what other civilizations had done before them.\their outstanding mummification of their dead attests to their medical expertise.
Greek civilization flourised from 2000 B.C along the
The Greeks were a mixture of Germanic and Aryan stock a people of physical vigor and vitality. They are known for being the first and the greates sportsmen, and the world owes them the highly esteemed Olympic games.
Poleis a small city – states that eveolved from a clan or a large family recognizing a common ancestor and having its own gods, laws, customs and traditions. Due to this political setup, each citizen participated directly in policy making and in all civic and military affairs. This paved the way for the establishment and propagation of democracy.
To be a Spartan, an individual had to be physically fit, self – disciplined, strong , simple, frugal, courageous, and willing to do without luxuries and unnecessary comforts in life.
Paidonomus a military commander who cared for the boys in public barracks at the state’s expense. The paidonomus instilled in the boys self – discipline through such activities as gymnastics, tough the boys self – discipline, exercises, drills, and other physical activities until they were 18 years old.
The Latin expression men
Paidagogus an educated slave who accompanied the boy under his charge and stayed with him in school. Also responsible for the boys conduct; he saw to it that his charge behaved himself and studied his lessons.
Palaestra or public gymnasium. It was here where the Athenian boys obtained their physical training under an instructor called paedotrib.
Part of their physical training were various physical exercises called pentathlon.
Pentathlon which consisted of running, jumping, discus and javelin throw and wrestling. Dancing was also part of physical training in the palaestra because of its value in developing gentle and graceful movements in a person and its use in religious rituals.
Then there was the music school under a teacher called kitharistes.
Kitharistes whose function was to impart knowledge on music. Music for the Greeks was used to mold and develop the individuals character. The kitharistes taught poems, stories, epics and other literacy pieces taken from the works of Homers such as the Iliad and Odyssey. These were all accompanied by music.
Writing, on the other hand, was taught by a grammarian who used a wax tablet and a stylus, an instrument pointed at one end to make letters and falt at the other end to erase them, for the writing exercises.
After completing his preparatory education at the age of 18 and passing all the requirements regarding his physical and moral qualification. The Athenian boy was names an ephebos, or noveice citizen.
Sophist well- traveled men who were mostly noncitizens of
THE THREE GREAT EDUCATIONAL THEORIST
The Greek philosophers then focused much of their time and attention toward resolving this dilemma. Among these philosophers were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle – the trio considered the greates of the ancient Greek philosophers.
Socrates (469-399 BC), accepted the fundamental principle of Protagoras. Socrates, knowledge is virtue and all virtuous actions are based on one’s knowledge. Likewise, whoever is enlightened must be virtuous. Though Socrates did not write any treatise on his basic tenets and teachings, Plato, his faithful and intelligent disciple, credited him with the Socratic or dialectic method of teaching.
Socratic Dialectics –Ironic- Destructive Element
-Maieutic – Constructive Element
Socrates was fond of posing thought – provoking and at times unanswerable questions to his students. If he though the opinion given was contrary to his own, he would ask a series of questions leading the individual to think critically about his origin statement to the point that he finally contradicts it. This strategy best illustrated the ironic-destructive element of Socrates’ method.
The first set of questions would be reinforced by another series of questions in the mind of the student that would lead him to the conceive the correct idea concerning the arguments. This was what Socrates called the maieutic-constructive element.
Protagoras chief of the Sophist, that man is the measure of all things. However, he declared that before using a measure of any kind, one should fully understand it. He postulated the concept Gnothi Seauton
Gnothi Seauton or “know thyself”.
Without the writings of Plato ( 427-347 bC) later generations would probably be lost concerning the teaching of Socrates. It was Plato who, through his dialogues, revealed the works and teachings of his great master/.
Plato had his own concepts concerning education, as contained in his dialogue Republic where he advocated a government which he termed as aristocratic socialism. This means that the state controls everything, even in determining who could get married.
Plato believed that society should be composed of three distinct classes.:
1. The philosophical class – devoted to the pursuit of knowledge, its virtue was wisdom and its duty was to rule the people.
2. The warrior class – devoted to warfare, its virtue was honor and its duty was to protect and defend the estate and the people according to the directions of the rules.
3. The artisan or industrial class- devoted to trade and crafts, its virtue was money making and its duty was to obey and support the other two classes.
Aristotle (384-322 B.C) was the most popular disciple of Plato. He was born in the city of
THE GREEK UNIVERSITIES
The Rhetorical Schools were based on the ideals of the Sophists. They were established as a venue where man can think clearly as a form of expression and not just as a way to win in an argument. They became so popular that they attracted the leading statements of
The Philosophical Schools the conteract and neutralize the growing influences of the Sophists, the philosopher established their own schools.
THE UNIVERSITIES OF
Prestigious and influential like the
THE ROMAN EDUCATION SYSTEM
The development of the roman educational system took place in two great time divisions. The first period, referred to as the period of early Roman Education, started in 753 BC and lasted until 250 BC. The second period transpired from 250 BC to 146 BC.
EARLY ROMAN EDUCATION
Ludus a primary school arose. Majority of the Romans sent their young boys to this school to learn reading, writing, and arithmetic.
HELLENIZED ROMAN EDUCATION
The second period was marked by the start of the roman;s contacts with Greekl civilization. Around 250 BC
Livius Andronicus (284-204 BC) a greek slave from
THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
The school of the litterator, or teacher of letters, was a modification of the traditional ludus, from which Roman boys acquired their three Rs under a paidagodus.
THE GRAMMAR SCHOOL
The grammar school became a definite educational institution with well – defined, methods of teaching, a fixed curriculum and public support. Grammar was the chief subject of study, but other subjects were literature, language, oration and declamation.
Institution Oratoria a book which combines of discussions on education with a study on the principles, scope and style of oratory. Quintilian advocated that an orator must be a man of integrity with good memory.
THE CATECHUMENAL SCHOOLS
Catechumens as the church grew, there was a need for new converts or probationers to be given adequate introductory lessons on the basic doctrine and dogmas of the church. |Classes were conducted in the catechumenal schools in which the catechumens were prepared for baptism. The pronationers were required to pass this stage of instruction and trail for Christian life before they could be accepted as full-feldge members of the church.
THE CATECHETICAL SCHOOLS
The converts progresses in learning the doctrines of the church and were given in- depth training. This helped them become steadfast in their faith and strong against the attacks of other beliefs and mysticisms common during those days. They themselves taught the new probationers, further spreading the religion. The catechetical schools, originally established by the catechists to prepare adults for baptism in the early Christian church, were assigned this responsibility.
THE EPISCOPAL SCHOOLS
The Episcopal schools were organized by the bishops to train the clergy in the churches under their supervision. AS these schools were housed in cathedrals the palaces of bishops –they were also known as cathedral schools. They served as the only educational institution in the west after total collapse of the Roman civilization.
MONASTICISM: EDUCATION AS A MORAL AND RELIGIOUS DISCIPLINE
The pagans beautified the body yet neglected the soul, the Christians beautified and exalted the soul by neglecting the body and denying it its worldly appetites. These pratices gave birth to a movement called monasticism. The term was derived from the Latin word mono which means alone. The monk were regular members of the clergy whohad taken vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
Poverty meant renunciation of material and worldly interest: chastity, abstinence from sexual relations: and obedience, difference to ones superiors. Moreover, the monks completely renounced three great aspects of social life: the family, state, and industrial or economic organization.
SCHOLASTICISM: EDUCATION AS AN INTELLECTUAL DISCIPLINE
Scholasticism developed during the start of the eleventh century.
Scholasticism was a philosophical system of various Christian thinkers who sought to solve general philosophical system of various Christian thinkers who sought to solve general philosophical problems such as those on faith and reason, will and intellect, and realism against nominalism.
REALISM VS NOMINALISM
Realism is a philosophical doctrine that states that universals exist outside the mind.
Universal is a term that refers to a thing in its entirety.
Nominalism is a theory that states that there are no universal essences in reality.
A conflict arose between the realist, followers of Plato, and the nominalists, followers of Aristotle.
Conceptualism holds that universal concepts exist in the mind as subjects of discourse.,
PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY
The greates of these theologians was Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274)/ he wrote the Summa Theologiae which has remained the authorative presentation of the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church.
THE RISE OF THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY
The universities started out as associations chartered by the monarchs of the people called universitas magistrorum et scholarium which literally means corporation of the teachers and students.
COMPOSITION OF THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY
In the medieval university the entire studentry was referred to as the stadium generale
Teachers and students who came from the same place of origin were organized as a nation and each nation elected a leader called a councilor.
Teachers who taught the same subject were called facultas: they were led by dean.
Every year, the councilor and the deans met to elect a rector who served as the head of the university.
DEGREE OFFERINGS IN THE MEDIEVAL UNIVERSITY
If he successfully passed this test, he was conferred the degree of a master, doctor, professor or sophist. He was granted the licentia docendi, or the license to teach anywhere.
CHIVALRY: EDUCATION AS A SOCIAL DISCIPLINE
Chivalry was the secular counterpart of monasticism. Its adherents aimed to attain the highest social ideals through forms and customs.
THE RISE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS
Toward the end of the medieval period a new class of people arose between the nobles and the peasants. This was the bourgeoisie or the middle class. The members of this class were not born to wealth like landed gentry, nor poor like the vassals or slaves.
The bourgeoisie had to protect their interests against the other classes. To accomplish this goal, they established guilds or organizations of people engaged in the same profession, for the protection of their interests and welfare.
There were two distinct types of guilds:
1. the merchant guild compised of businessmen who engaged in buying and selling products,
2. crafts guild, composed of skilled workers who manufactured and sold their own products.
Journeyman, he moved from on master to another as a paid laborer, learning new skills in the process.
THE NEED FOR NEW SCHOOLS
The development of the middle class saw the establishment of new schools; the chantry school, guild school, and burgher school.
The chantry school started as a foundation , a gift of property to a priest in exchange for his prayers for the soul of his benefactor and the latter’s family. The school was under the supervision of priests and clergy who trained children in grammar as well as in the Latin language.
The guild school was free from ecclesiastical control. It main purpose was to orient and train a student to take over his father’s profession upon the latter’s retirement. It was the predecessor of the modern vocational school.
The burgher school was controlled and supported by secular authorities based in the cities. The priest served as the teachers: they trained the students regarding morals and religion in addition to teaching them the three Rs.
ISLAMIC INFLUENCE ON EDUCATION
Shahada or Muslim confession of faith, Islam is described as a religion which requires submission to God and purely monotheistic faith. The Muslims believe there is only one God –Allah- and Muhammad is his prophet.
Islam is founded on the teachings of Muhammad (570-632) a native of the city of
From his travels Muhammad picked up Jewish and Christian religious ideas, finally arriving at the conviction that polytheism or the belief in many gods that most Arabs had, was wrong and that there was only one god, the God worshipped both by Jews and Christians.
Humanism was derived from studia humanitatis which means studies of humanity.
Humanist concept of liberal education was not much different from that of educators during the medieval times.
Renaissance humanists aimed for the development of the intellectual. Spiritual and physical capacities of a person through education.
THE HUMANISTIC TRADITION IN
The type of humanism which prevailed in
THE HUMANISTIC TRADITION IN
Some humanists from northern
Erasmis was known for his educational works Libreal Education of Children and On the Order of Study where he advocated the importance of studying the character of the child using play and games in the teaching learning process and his opposition to the use of harsh and brutal discipline.
Johann Sturm (1507-1589) of Strassburgin in
During the medieval period, especially during the reign of Boniface VIII, the Catholic Church institutionalized the sale of indulgences.
An indulgence is defined by Rev. Charles Hart in the Studen’s Catholic Doctrine as the remission of a sin through temporal punishment, or penance. Indulgences presumably enabled a person to escape the tormenting fires of hell as punishment for his/her sins. Failure to do penance or, in this case, buy the indulgence meant the person could not be given communion.
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
· He was a former law student of
· Opposed the payment of indulgences, among other abuses of the church leaders.
· Espoused that people need no longer pay for the remission of their sin; Jesus Christ had already done this by way of his death on the cross.
· He found himself struggling against doubts and uncertainties concerning his faith especially after his personal discovery of the truth of justification by faith.
MELANCHTHON’S EDUCATIONAL CONTRIBUTIONS
Philip Melanchthon a disciple- friend of Martin Luther. He obtained considerable successes in making Reformation acceptable to the intellectuals as Luther had made it acceptable to the masses.
In 1528, Melanchthon was requested by the Elector of Saxony to organize the state school system later to be known as the
THE RISE OF PROTESTANTISM
Protestantism started in northern
Protestants those who made the protest. The term protestant is used to refer to one of the Christian churches separating from the Roman Catholic Church during the Reformation or from another Protestant church to defend beliefs and practices it holds vital: the principal of justification by faith, the priesthood of all believers, the authority and sufficiency of the Bible, and the right and duty of individual judgment in matters of faith.
Protestantism influence a number of countries in northern
The theological doctrines of Calvinism emphasize the sovereignty of God in the bestowal of grace and that specifically includes election of predestination, limited atonement total depravity, irresistibility of grace and the perseverance of saints.
The Society of Jesus, popularly known as Jesuits, was established by Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), a Spanish noble and soldier, in 1540.
The aim of this society was expressed in its motto “ Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam” or “Everything for the Greater Glory of God”.
The Jesuits did not concentrate on elementary education; they put greater emphasis on tertiary education for the rigid training of the leaders of both the church and state. They also abolished corporal punishment, instead utilizing rivalry and competition in such activities as debates to motivate students to study harder.
Aside from the Jesuits, another teaching congregation in
The Jansenists’ curriculum became known for its emphasis on the French language and logic and foreign languages.
THE CHRISTIAN BROTHERS
Jean Baptiste de la Salle (1651-1719) in 1684 The Institute of the Brethren of Christian Schools (De La Salle Schools) was established.
De la Salle’s educational ideals and methods of teaching are recapitulated in “ The conduct of Schools”, a treatise published in 1720, a year after his death.
Realism is education in which natural phenomena and social institutions rather than languages and literature are the chief subjects of study. It is considered as an educational philosophy which advocates that education should be concerned with the realities of life and should prepare a person for his/her duties in life.
Humanistic realism aimed to secure a knowledge of human society and its institutions of nature and man’s reactions to nature, chiefly through a study of the content and not the form of the classics.
John Milton (1608-1674) and Francois Rabelais (1483-1553) most notable educators who espoused these ideas.
Social Realism put emphasis on the study of modern foreign languages. It also stressed the importance of traveling to allow one to interact with people from all walks of life.
Michel de Montaign (1533-1592) was a kawyer a d public official. He was well known social realist wh authored the educational essays, Pedantry and The Education of Children.
SENSE OF REALISM
Sense Realism maintains that knowledge comes primarily through the senses; education is founded on the training of sense perception rather than on pure memory activities. Sense realism condemns the use of excessive and harsh discipline in learning. The sense realists introduced a new teaching method called the inductive method.
John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) was a Moravian bishop considered as the first educator who advocated as the first educator who advocated the use of visual aids in classroom teaching.
Orbis Sensualium Pictus (The Visible world in Pictures), the first illustrated textbook for children.. The book attempted to dramatized Latin through pictures illustrating Latin sentences accompanied by one or two translations in the vernacular.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) of
Richar Mulcaster (1531-1611) was the school head of Merchant Taylor’s School and
Wolfgang Ratke (1571-1635) was a German sense realist who advocated the use of the vernacular as the medium of instruction as the child need no longer learn the language and thus can concentrate wholly on the lesson being studied.
Disciplinism also known as formal discipline, was based upon Aristotle’s faculty psychology which asserted that the mind is made up of certain faculties memory, reason, will and judgement each of which needs special activities for its training and development.
John Locke (1632-1704) an English educato-philospher was aa prominent adherent of formal discipline. He held the idea that education was a discipline; however the discipline of the philosopher should be much broader that that of the schoolmaster.
In his work Though Concerning Education published in 1693, Locke stressed that at birth a child’s mind can be compared to a tabula rasa or a blank tablet.
Locke believed that, rather than the acquisition of knowledge, moral development and the formation of desirable habits should be the chief aims of education.
He advocated that in order to that in order to realize this, education should be composed of three separate but equally important components:
1. physical education with the underlying principles of rigid physical training or a hardening process so as to enable the child to possess a sound mind in a sound body
2. moral education the chief aim which was the development of virtue based on self-denial which in turn is achieve through consistent self – discipline and control of desires
3. Intellectual education, the primary purpose of which was to train the mind in certain habits among which are memory reasoning and judgment gained through exercise and discipline.
Rationalism was the educational philosophy prevalent in
Francois Marie Arouet a French philosopher, popularly known as Voltaire (1694-1778), held that education should be free from religiosity.
The rationalists upheld the right of a person to express his/her own ideas and opinions with freedom. They believed that religion is just an illusion to the believer and a deception by the priesthood, a view that was bitterly opposed by he adherents of naturalism.
Naturalism is the education philosophy which advocated that education should be in accordance with the nature of the child. This means that all educational practices are focus toward the natural development of the innate talents and abilities of the child.
Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). He was born in
Emile an ducational novel that is referred to as a charter on childhood. This novel is said to contain Rousseau’s educational ideals.
STAGE OF INFANCY
Rousseau advocated that, from infancy, the child should start with what he called negative education.
Negative Education training the child to guar the heart, against vice and the mind against terror.
Rousseau described childhood as the most critical period of human life.At this stage, where nothing should be done to force the child’s mind to do or think contrary to his desire. The child’s intellectual development must only be through sensory and motor activities brought about by his curiosity.
STAGE OF REASON
During the period from age 12 to 15, the child has more strength than what he needs. This is the best period for the child to acquire knowledge. At this stage, the sole guide should be curiosity or interest and the test of skills is its practical use.
At this period the child’s body, sense and brain are already fully developed. The child has been educated solely for himself and by himself. At this stage, he starts to be educated on social relationships with the chief motive of love for others. Education, said Rousseau, should end and begin at this stage.
PSYCHOLOGICAL TENDENCY IN EDUCATION
The psychological movement in education was the by-product of studies conducted concerning the nature of the child.
Child – centered school. With the learner as its foremeost concern, it called for the application of psychological principles such as individual differences, motivation, and transfer of learning in education.
Johan Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) was the son of a diligent and industrious widow from
Pestalozzi defined education as a natural, symmetrical, and harmonious development of the faculties of the child.
Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) was the son of an educated public official from
He is known today for his Herbatian method of teaching which consists of five formal steps:
1. Preparation setting the child’s mindfor the new learning tasks
2. Presentation discussion of the new lesson
3. Association recollection of past experience and relating these to the present learning situation
4. Generalization drawing of conclusion based on past and present experience
5. Application putting into practice the theories the child has learned
Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852) had a miserable childhood in
SOCIOLOGICAL TENDENCY IN EDUCATION
While psychologists look at education as a process in the development of an individual and approach the subject through he study if physical activities, sociologists look at education as a process geared toward the propagation, perpetuation and amelioration of society and approach the subject through a study of social structure, social activities and social needs.
John Dewey (1856-1952) was a famous American philosopher and psychologist who founded the school of pragmatism.
Pragmatism prescribes that the merit of an idea or belief should be judged by its practical results.
According to Dewey, a person faced with a problem must logically examine the options open to him to find the best solution supported by the facts. He organized and administered a school for children 4 to 13 years old at the
PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION
Philosophy of education involves the union of two distinct yet interwoven and equally important disciplines which supplement and complement each other.
Philosophy analyzes life’s unending phenomen natural or man made and gives a critical and contemplative view of life, education is considered a means that provides a person with a way to develop a personal perspective or point of view on matters pertaining to his/her daily life.
According to Kilpatrick, philosophy of education refers to any distinctive sociopolitical outlook such as democracy, Hitlerism, Communism or reactionary conservatism.
PHILOSOPY AND EDUCATION
Philosophy, etymologically speaking is derived from the Greek words philo meaning love and sophos or Sophia meaning “wise” or “ wisdom”. Philosophy, therefore is love for wisdom.
Philosophy as the quest for truth based on logical reasoning and factual observation of nature’s multifarious phenomena.
BRANCHES OF PHILOSPHY
Branches of philosophy
Metaphysics traces its origin from Aristotle who first introduced it as meta ta physika, which means with the thing of nature
Metaphysics basically deals with the nature of being and reality.
Under metaphysics are the following subdivisions:
1. Cosmology – branch of metaphysics which tried to explain the theories, origin and development of the nature of the cosmos (universe). It considers evolution and creation as possible origins of the cosmos.
2. Teleology - branch of metaphysics which tries to elucidate on subjects pertaining to whether or not there is purpose in the universe. It tackles the blind mechanism philosophies, which hold that the world is what it is because of accident and teleological philosophies, which hold that the world and the universe have been there from the beginning for a certain purpose which can be discerned in history.
3. Ontology – branch of metaphysics which deals with the meaning of existence, and tries to resolve the question of whether existence is identical with space, time, nature, spirit or God.
METAPHYSICS AND EDUCATION
Metaphysics deals with reality and being as well as a human beings existence and his/her spirituality.
Education is the process of acquiring knowledge, habits, interests, attitudes, skills and abilities and other intangible human qualities.
Epistemology originaes from the Greek words episteme, meaning “knowledge” or science and logos which means the study of Fundamentally, epistemology is concerned with the study of knowledge. This branch of philosophy tries to answer fundamental human question such as What is knowledge? Where does knowledge come from? How do we acquire knowledge of right and wrong? How do we gain knowledge of God? How do we know whether God does or does not exist?
Like metaphysics, epistemology has its distinct subdivisions as follows:
1. Agnosticism – the doctrine that conclusive knowledge of ultimate reality is an outright impossibility. It further claims that is impossible for a person to prove either the existence or nonexistence of God, It is applied generally to any theory of knowledge which claims that it is impossible for one to attain knowledge of something.
2. Skepticism – the doctrine that any true knowledge is impossible or that all knowledge is uncertain. Skepticism also means having a questioning attitude toward the possibility of having any knowledge.,
3. A posteriori – the reasoning that experience comes first and knowledge afterwards. The term comes from a Latin phrase which means from behind – hand. The term is used to determine knowledge that comes from experience.
4. A priori – the reasoning that knowledge can be acquired through pure reason alone, independently and perhaps, before experience. Literally it means from beforehand.
Axiology – the area of philosophy that specifically deals with the problem of value . It seeks to rationalize questions like, What is value? What are the important values which are to be desired in living? Are these values rooted in reality? How can these values be realized in our daily experiences?
Like the two previous philosophical disciplines, axiology has its own subdivisions that deal with specific areas of concern.
1. Ethics – the practical science that deals with the morality of human action or conduct. The term ethics traces its roots to the Greek word ethos which means characteristics way of acting.
2. Aesthetics – the science fundamentally concerned with beauty and standards of tests and value especially in art. It is also define as the science of feeling or sensation. The term aesthetics is derived from the Greek work aesthetic which means the one who perceives.
ANXIOLOGY AND EDUCATION
John Ruskin, an English essayist, states, Education does not mean teaching people to learn what they do not know, but it means teaching them to behave as they do not behave.
Education should not only give provisions for intellectual and personality development.
Logic is the branch of philosophy that is concerned with the systematic treatment of the relation of ideas.
The term logic could have been derived either from the Greek word logia which means arguments or logike meaning art of reasoning. It is the sudy of th science and art of correct thinking and correct reasoning.
Logic also has its specific fields for its different areas of concern. These are as follows:
1. Induction – reasoning that is done through the process of inferring a general law of principle from the observation of particular instances to a general conclusion.
2. Deduction – reasoning through a process which is the reverse of induction, that is from a general principle to particulars included within he scope of the principle.
3. syllogism – argumentation in ehich a conclusion is derived from two prepositions called premises.
4. Dialectics – a means of discovering the truth by proceeding from an assertation or thesis to a denial or antithesis and finally reconciling the two through a synthesis.
THEORIES RELATED TO EDUCATION
Education is related to almost all fields of human knowledge. In addition to the different branches of philosophy, there are theories which have had some influence on or application in the field of education. These theories include idealism, pragmatism, progressivism, existentialism and essentialism.
Idealism claims that a person’s knowledge is based in his/her mental state and that the mental stimulus perceived by this person’s soul comes from an infinite spirit which is God. God is the summum bonum or the highest good in whom absolute good, beauty and values are found.
In educatin, idealism argues that the individual’s freedom should be emphasized and guaranteed. The idealist claim that education must provide for the development of the mind of every person.
The idealist expect teachers to be role models to their students of intellectual, moral, aethetics, and vocational excellence.
Pragmatism is derived from the Greek work pragma, meanings a thing done, a fact that is practiced. This doctrine claims that the meaning of a proposition or idea lies in its practical consequences.
The pragmatist claim that society cannot full an educational task without an institution designed for this purpose.
Progressivism an equally new approach to the philosophy of education, like pragmatism claims that the child’s growth and development as an individual depend in his/her experience and self activity. Adheres to the idea that thinking and reasoning should be emphasized, and that good and successful teaching utilizes the principles of self – activity and stimulates thinking and reasoning.
Existentialism is a doctrine primarily attributed to Soren Kierkegaard, a nineteenth-century Danish philosopher who adamantly argued that human existence was marked off from all other kinds by a persons’ power to choose.
Education to the existentialist should enable a person to make choices for his/her life. It should be a means to open his/her very eyes to the naked truth of existence and make him/her aware of his/her status.
Existentialist have no concrete concept to support the existence of god or any absolute value. They believe that on emolds his/her own destiny.
Essentialism is the philosophical theory that ascribes ultimate reality to the essence embodied in a thing and which is perceptible to the senses.
In education , essentialism holds that certain basic ideas and skills or disciplines essential to one’s culture are formulable and shoul be taught to all through the use of certain time-tested methods.
THE PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION
OF THE PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM
The country’s educational system adhered to certain philosophies at different periods of its history.
Contrary to the claims of the Spanish conquerors that ancient inhabitants of the
When Miguel Lopez de Legazpi succeeded in colonizing the Philippine archilega in 1565, life was never the same for the Filipinos. The Spaniards practically altered all aspects of Philippine society then
One of the first concerns of the Spaniards was the establishment of schools for their children with the objective of rearing them in the skills in letters similar to those acquired by the youth in
The Americans totally change the educational concepts introduced by the Spaniards. Because they believed in education as the means by which people can be oriented toward a democratic way of life, they made education accessible to all regardless of sex, age, religion and socioeconomic status.
The American soldiers taught the Filipinos to speak English. Education was later carried out by the Thomasites, the first civilian teachers of English. Equally important was the introduction of religious freedom, an exist contradiction to the spaniards view of religion.
The goal of the educational system under the Japanese military government were articulated in Executive Order No. 2 issued on
During the period from the proclamation of the
All education institutions shall be under the supervision of and subject to regulation by the State. The government shall establish and maintain a complete and adequate system of public education, and shall provide at least free primary instruction and citizenship training to adult citizens. All schools shall aim to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic consciousness and vocational efficiency and teach the duties of citizenship. Optional religious instruction shall be maintained by law. Universities established by the State shall enjoy academic freedom. The state shall create scholarships in arts, sciences and letters for especially-gifted citizens.
However, by the virtue of Proclamation No. 1084 signed on
PROVISION OF THE 1987 CONSTITUTION
Section 1, Article XIV of the 1987 Constitution provides that the state shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education to all levels and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
This provision is based on the idea of universal education and stresses that it is the responsibility of the state to provide quality education to all citizens, regardless of their socioeconomic status. It is also the duty of the estate to make quality education affordable even to the less fortunate. The estate through congress has approved several laws to implement this provision.
It is provided in Section 2 that the state has duty to establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education. The state is mandated by the Constitution to provide an educational system that will meet the needs of all the people, develop their potential and skills as well as their moral character. The educational system shall also be from the elementary grades to the graduate level.
FREE PUBLIC EDUCATION
Subsection 2 of Section 2 mandates the states to maintain a system of free public education in the elementary and high school levels. Previous to this, only elementary schools were nationalized and required tuition fee but by virtue of Republic Act (RA) 6655, otherwise known as the Free Public Secondary /education Act of 1988, all public secondary school no longer collect tuition fee from their student. Likewise all public secondary schools are now nationalized, thus there are no more barangay high schools, municipal high schools, provincial high schools, and the like.
Pursuant to the provision of Section 2, subsection 3, the govrenment launched several scholarship programs and student-loan programs. Even before the 1987 Constitution was drafted, there were already program of this sort.
NONFORMAL, INFORMA AND INDIGENOUS LEARNING
The Constitution mandate the state to encourage nonformal education to enable those who do not have the means to take formal schooling to be trained for profitable employment. Nonformal education covers agricultural education, fishery education, distributive and commercial education, industrial/trade/technical education, as well as homaking and home industries.
Indigenous learning and informal education include the methods used by cultural communities to build and preserve their traditions, taking into account the needs of the community while allowing for the influx of external cultural factors.
SPECIAL EDUCATION AND ADULT EDUCATION
Special Education refers to a program designed to meet the particular needs of exceptional children, those who normally cannot profit, from general education due to their disabilities or exceptional abilities.
OPTIONAL RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION
Section 3, paragraph 3 of Article XIV explicitly mandates that religion shall be taught on a voluntary basis in public elementary and high schools within regular class hours.
It further provides that parents or guardians may express in writing their option concerning the religious instruction to e given to their children or wards.
STATE POWER OVER EDUCATIN INSTITUTIONS
In section 4(1) of Article XIV, the state recognizes the complementary roles of public and private institution in the educational system. This provision mandates the estate to exercise reasonable supervision and regulation of all educational institution.
Based on Section 4(1) all public schools are under state control and the state through the department of Education, culture and Sports (DECS) has the power to prescribe the curriculum, select textbooks, impose disciplinary measures, and exercise other prerogative and /or powers of owners or employee.
Although under the provision of Section4(1), the state’s authority over private educational institutions is limited to supervision and regulation and not control, the estate through the DECS may impose minimum requirements and conditions upon which private schools may operate. These include prescribing the proper curriculum, setting, proper standards, and checking the qualifications of teachers and other school personnel.
OWNERSHIP AND ADMINISTRATION OF SCHOOLS
As stated in Section4 (2), all educational institution other than those established by religious groups or mission boards shall be owned solely by the citizens of the Philippines or corporations or associations of which at least 60 percent of the capital income is owned by such citizens, Control and administration of educational institutions shall be vested in citizens of the Philippines.
ALIENS IN SCHOOL
Based on the provisions of Section 4, no educational institution shall be establisjed exclusively for aliens and no group of aliens shall comprise more than one-third of the enrollment of any school. In other words, the number of foreign student in any school shall not exceed 33 percent of the total population. However, this provision does not apply to schools established for foreign diplomatic personnel and their dependents, and other foreign temporary residents. One such school is
As stated in Article XIV, Sectin 4(3) all assets of nonstick, nonprofit educational institution used actually, directly and exclusively for education purpose shall be exmept from taxes and duties.. In order for a school to be granted tax exemptions, its profit or assets must be used to improve school facilities or academic standards. It is provided further that upon school facilities or academic standards. It is provided further that upon the dissolution or cessation of a nonstick, nonprofit organizations corporate existence, its assets are to be disposed in the manner provided by law.
REGIONAL AND SECTORAL NEEDS
In section 5(1), the state shall take into account regional and sectoral needs and conditions and shall encourage local planning in the development of educational policies and programs. This recognizes that different regions or sectors have different needs as well as problems, examples are different from those of schools in CAmarines Sur and other rural communities.
Academic freedom is the right granted to institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study, who may teach, and what the subjects of the study and research shall be.
RIGHT OF CITIZENS TO A PROFESSION
Every citizen has a right to select a profession or a course of study, subject to fair, reasonable, and equitable admission and academic requirements [Section 5(2)]. The state cannot hinder any citizen from pursuing a chosen career and /or profession provided it is not contrary to law, and provided further that the person meets the necessary requirements prescribed by the estate.
RIGHT OF TEACHES TO PROFESSIONAL GROWTH
The state is mandated by the constitution to enhance the right of teachers to academic advancement. Nonteaching academic and non-academic personnel shall enjoy the protection of the estate.
HIGHEST BUDGETARY PRIORITY TO EDUCATION
As mandated in Section5(5), the estate shall assign the highest budgetary allocation to education and ensure that teaching will attract and retain its rightful share of best available talents through adequate renumeration and other means of job satisfaction and fulfillment.
RIGHTS OF PARENTS AND CHILDREN
Batas Pambansa Blg.232 also provides for the following rights of parents with children enrolled in a school
1. The right to organize by themselves and/or with teachers for the purpose of providing a forum for the discussion of matters relating to the school program and for ensuring the full cooperation of parents and teachers in the formulation and effivient implementation of such programs.
2. The right of access to any official record directly relating to the children who are under their parental responsibility
On the other hand, children enrolled in a school shall have the following rights:
1. To right to receive competent instruction relevant to quality education
2. The right to freely chooses their field of study subject to the existing curricul and to continue their course up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency or violations of disciplinary regulations
3. The right to school guidance and counseling services
4. The right to have access to their own school records and the confidentiality of these
5. The right to issuance of official certificates, diplomas, transcript of records, grades, transfer credentials, and other similar documents within 30 days from request.
6. The right to publish a student newspaper
7. The right to invite resource persons during symposia, assemblies and other activities.
8. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions and to effective channels of communication with appropriate academic and administrative bodies of the school or institution
9. The right to form or establish, join and participate in organizations and societies recognized by the school… or to form join and maintain organizations and societies for purposes not contrary to law
10. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those approved by their organizations and societies.
RIGHTS OF ALL SCHOOL PERSONNEL
Section 10 mandates the following rights of those employed by a school:
1. The right to free expression of opinions and suggestions.
2. The right to be provided with free legal services by the appropriate government office (in case of public school personnel) and the school authorities concerned (in case of private school personnel? Whn charged in administrative, civil, and or criminial proceedings by parties other than the school authorities concerned for actions committed directly in the lawful discharge of professional duties and or in defense of school policies.
3. The right to establish, join or maintain a labor organization of their choice to promote their welfare and defend their interest
4. The right to be free from involuntary contributions except those imposed by their own organizations.
RIGHT OF TEACHING OR ACADEMIC STAFF
The following rights of teaching staff are provided in Section 11:
1. The right to be free from compulsory assignment not related to the duties define in their appointments or employment contracts unless compensated thereof (additional compensation in Section 14 of Ra 4670 should be at least 25 percent of the regular remuneration)
2. The right to intellectual property consistent with applicable laws:
Intellectual property refers to the original works of a person such as books: periodicals:lectures; sermons and addresses: dissertations; lteets;musical compositions; works of drawing, painting; architecture; sculpture; engraving; photography; cinematography, and lithography; maps and computer programs. Under PD No 49 the owners of these works are protected by law against plagiarism and or/ unauthorized use, reproduction, sale or distribution of their works.
3. The right to lawful discharge of the duties and responsibilities with due respect and protection
4. The right to choose career alternatives for advancement
RIGHTS OF ADMINISTRATORS AND SCHOOL
School administrators shall be deemed persons in authority while in the lawful discharge of their duties and responsibilities and shall be accorded due to resect and protection.
On the other hand, schools have the following rights as provided in Section 13:
1. The right of their governing boards to adopt and enforce administrative or management systems
2. The right of institutions of higher learning to determine on academic grounds who shall be admitted to study or teach, and what shall be the subjects of study and reseach
DUTIES AND OBLIGATIONS OF DIFFERENT SECTORS
Even as Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 provides for the rights of different groups of Filipinos, it also enumerates the duties and obligations of these groups, especially in relation to education in the country.
DUTIES OF PARENTS
As provided in Section 14, the following shall be the duties of every parent:
1. Parents, individually or collectively, through the school system, shall help carry out educational objectives in accordance with national goals.
2. Parents shall be obliged to enable their children to obtain elementary education and shall strive to enable them to obtain secondary and higher education in the pursuance of the right formation of the youth.
3. Parents shall cooperate with the school in the implementation of the school program, both curricular and cocurricular.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF STUDENTS
Section 15 spells out the duties and responsibilities of every student as follows:
1. Students shall exert their utmost to develop their potentialities for service, particularly by undergoing an educational program suited to their family and society
2. Students shall uphold the academic integrity of the school. Endeavor to achiev academic excellence, and abide by the rules and regulations governing their academic responsibilities and moral integrity.
3. Students shall promote and maintain the peace and tranquility of the school by observing rules of discipline and by exerting efforts to attain harmonious relationships with fellow students, the teaching and academic staff, and other school personnel.
4. Students shall participate actively in civic affair and in the promotion of the general welfare of their respective communities particularly in the community’s social, economic and cultural development and in the attainment of a jus, compassionate and orderly society.
5. Students shall exercise their rights responsibility in the knowledge that they are answerable for any infringement or violation of public welfare and of the rights of others.
DUTIES OF TEACHERS
Section 16 expects teachers to fulfill the following obligations:
1. Discharge their responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals and objectives of the school/
2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective attainment of specified learning objectives in pursuance of national development goals, within the limits of available school resources.
3. Render regular reports on the performance of each student to the latter’s parents or guardians with specific suggestion for the improvement.
4. Assume the responsibility of maintaining and sustaining their professional growth and advancement and of maintaining professionalism in their behavior at all times.
5. Refrain from making a deduction in a student’s scholastic rating for acts that are clearly not manifestations of poor scholarship
6. Participate as an agent of constructive social, conomic, moral, intellectual, cultural and political change in their school and the community within the context of national policies.
DUTIES OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS
School Administrators are expected by Section 17 of Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 to fulfill the following duties.
1. Discharge their responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals and objectives of the school.
2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective administrations and management of the school.
3. Develop and maintain a healthy school atmosphere conducive to the promotion and preservation of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning and to harmonious and progressive school personnel relationship,
4. Assume and maintain professional behavior in their work and in dealing with students, teacher’s personnel administrative staff and parents or guardians.
5. Render adequate reports to teachers, academic personnel, and nonacademic staff on their actual performance in relation to their expected performance and counsel them on ways of improving the same.
6. Observe due process, fairness, promptness, privacy, constructiveness, consistency in disciplining teachers and other personnel.
7. Maintain adequate records and submit required reports to the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.
DUTIES OF ACADEMIC NONTEACHING PERSONNEL
Section 18 OF Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 stipulates the duties corresponding to the rights of academic nonteaching personnel. They are listed hereunder.
1. Improve themselves professionally by keeping abreast of the lates trends and techniques in the profession
2. Assume, promote and maintain a professional attitude toward their work, students, teachers, administrators and administrative staff, and relate with then in a supportive and cordial manner.
3. Promote and maintain an atmosphere conducive to service and learning.
MAINTENANCE OF QUALITY EDUCATION
Batas Pambansa Blg. 232 provides measures to maintain quality education. One of these is voluntary accreditation, or the recognition of an educational program or, where applicable of an educational institution as possessing certain standards of quality or excellence.
Programs pr institutions which a school would like to have accredited generally have to pass through these stages:
1. Applicant status –stage where an institution is officially listed by the accrediting agency as an applicant institution for a maximum period of three years.
2. Candidate status – period where an institution has already completed its preliminary survey and starts preparing for a formal survey. This usually lasts until the institution is granted accreditation status which takes place between one to two years
3. Member institution – distinction granted to an institution which satisfies all the requirements for accreditation. This initial accreditation status lasts for three years.
OTHER LEGAL BASES
Acts, decree and orders make up the other legal bases on which the Philippine educational system is founded.
This law was enacted on
1. the establishment of the Department of Public Instruction headed by the General Superintendent;
2. the division of the archipelago into school divisions and districts for effective management of the school system;
3. the use of English as medium of instruction in all levels of schooling;
4. optional religious instruction in all public schools; and
5. the establishment of a trade school in Manila, the Philippine College of Arts and Trade or PCAT, now known as Technological University of the Philippines, s school of Agriculture in Negros, and the Philippine Normal School (PNS) in Manila,PNS however, was renamed Philippine Normal College (PNC) on June 18, 1949 by virtue of RA No. 416. On
ACT NO. 1870
Under Section 2, the university shall provide advanced instruction in literature, philosophy, sciences and the arts give students professionals and technical training.
ACT NO. 2706
Known AS THE Private School Law. This was enacted on
This law was amended by commonwealth Act No. 180 passerd on Novemeber 13, 1936 which provided that;
The Secretary of Public Instruction was vested with power to “supervise, inspect and regulate said schools and colleges in order to determine the efficiency of instruction given in the same”.
All private schools come under the supervision and regulation of the secretary of the Department of Public Instruction (DPI), thus eliminating “diploma mills” and substandard schools.
COMMON WEALTH ACT NO.1]
This is known as the National Defense Act. Passed by the Philippine Assembly on
Preparatory military training shall begin with the youth in the elementary grade school at the age of ten years and shall extend through the reminder of the schooling into college or the university.
BY virtue of Presidential Decree No.1706 issued by President Marcos on
COMMONWEALTH ACT NO. 80
This law created the Office of Adult Education on Octoiber 26, 1936, to give vocational and citizenship training to adult citizens of the country in an effort to eliminate illiteracy.
COMMONWEALTH ACT. NO.578
Enacted on June 8, 1940, this law conferred the status of persons in autority upon teachers, professors and persons charged with the supervision of public or duly recognized private schools, colleges and universities,
The act also provided a penalty of imprisonment ranging from six months and one day to six years and a fine ranging from P500 to P 1,000 upon any person found guilty of assaulting teaching personnel.
COMMONWEALTH ACT NO. 586
Also known as the Education Act of 1940, this law was approved on
1. Reduction in the number of years for the elementary course from seven to six years
2. Fixing of the school entrance age to seven years old
3. National support of elementary education
4. Compulsory attendance in the primary grades for all children enrolled in grade I
5. Introduction of double-single session where a big class is divided into two the first half comes to class in the morning, the second half in the afternoon under one teacher to accommodate more children
COMMONWEALTH ACT NO, 589
This law was approved on
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 137
Private schools, however, may use books of their choice, provided the Board of Textbooks has no objections to these books.
REPUBLIC ACT NO 896
1. Restoration of grade seven (which was never implemented due to lact of funds)
2. Abolition of the double-single session and a return to the former practice of having only one class under one teacher in the primary and three teachers to two classes or five teachers to three classes in the intermediate
3. Compulsory completion of the elementary grades
4. Compulsory enrollment of children in the public schools upon reaching seven years of age
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 1124
However, the board later renamed National Board of Education through PD No. ! was established by virtue of the creation of the Board of Higher Education as stipulated in Batas Pambansa Blg. 232
REPUBLIC ACT NO, 1265
REPUBLIC ACT. NO 1425
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 4670
Known as th Magna Carta for Public School Teachers, this law was approved on
It also provided for the following:
1. Recruitment qualifications and procedure for hiring of teachers.
2. Code of professional conduct for teachers
3. Number of teaching hours, with 6 hours of classroom teaching as maximum load
4. Additional compensation of 25 percent of the regular remuneration
5. Health and injury benefits
6. One-year study leave (sabbatical leave) after seven years of continuous teaching, for which the teachers receives 60 percent of his/her monthly salary while on leave
7. One range salary increase which will be the basis for computing the retirement pay upon the teachers retirement
8. Freedom to form organizations
REPUBLIC ACT NO 1079
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6655
This law, known as the Free Public Secondary Education Act of 1988 was approved on
1. Free public secondary education shall be made available to all qualified citizens in order to promote quality education at all levels.
2. Except for those related to membership in the school community such identification, student organization and publication fees, no tuition or other fess shall be collected from students
3. Nonpayment of authorized fees shall not hinder a student from enrolling in a school or graduating from his/her class.
4. All public secondary schools shall be nationalized
REPUBLIC ACT NO. 6728
This law, known as the Act Providing Government Assistance to Students and Teachers in Private Education, was approved on
1. tuition fee supplement for students in private high schools, and for those enrolled in vocational and technical courses in schools which charge less than P1, 500 tuition fee.
2. High school textbook assistance fund
3. Expansion of educational serice contracting scheme (ESC)
4. Voucher system for the Private Education Student
5. Scholarship grants to graduating valedictorians and salutatorians
6. Tuition fee supplements to students in private colleges and universities
7. Educational loan fund
8. College faculty development fund
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