Monday, September 22, 2008

Foundations of Education

The Empirical Beginnings and Basic Contents of Educational Psychology

Aristotle – started the empirical beginnings of educational psychology in his foundation of the laws of association: similarity, contrast, and contiguity, supplemented by frequency.

Socrates and Plato – showed great interest in education

Quintilianus – a Roman Rhetorican, viewed on the bad effects of corporal punishment

- valued of comradeship in school life, in contrast to the private instruction

- was rediscovered at the beginning of modern times, his views stimulated

educational thoughts which had been rather neglected during the middle ages.

Erasmus and Rotterdam – agreed on Quintilanus views on corporal punishment but

Denied categorically its moral significance in education

- stressed the part played by interest in playing

Comenius – is one of the prominent figures in the history of education, 17TH century

- Stressed the necessity of taking the individuality of the child in consideration

Locke – expressed the view that the child has natural inclinations and interests but they

should be curbed on account of the sinful nature of man.

Jean Jacques Rosseau – with his gospel of the natural goodness of man, opposed the

view that man is vile.

Emile – stressed that “ the education of the child was naturally a central theme. Adults

Should not force their opinions and behavior on children.

- believed that the child own gifts and interests should be the guiding principles, and consideration should be paid to the wishes and impulses of the child.

Pestalozzi – was influenced by Rosseau

- “Man is good and strives to attain goodness, and if he is vile, it is because

the path of goodness has been closed to him.

Herman Ebbinghaus – published the results of his experiments on memory in 1885

- hoped to lay the basic for scientific study of learning by

memorizing long lists of nonsense syllables and then measuring his

retention capacity

- his pioneering research on learning earned him the title “ Father of Learning Psycholgy.

- draw two major conclusions:

*Once something is learned, it is not forgotten at even rate. Most of what is forgotten is lost very quickly, and the rest is lost at a slow and fairly stable rate.

* In order to learn new material, it is more efficient to space practice than to mass it.

James McKeen Catell – was the first to use the now familiar term “ mental test “

- administered in Columbia College freshmen, including tests

of after- images, color, vision, perception of pitch sensitivity

to pain, color preferences, perception of time, accuracy of

movement, imagery and print types and stimulus intensity

formed the groundwork for most basic reading research of

the next 30 years.

Alfred Binet – defined intelligence as the ability to understand well, and to judge well.

- developed his first test battery in 1895 and used the term “ mental age to”

describe his scoring technique, and this early system is an example

of norm – reference scoring.

Edward Lee Thorndike – conducted the first experiments in maze learning

( with chicken ) and puzzle box learning ( with kittens ) in 1898 and was appointed professor of educational psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University in 1901.

- published a paper entitled “ animal intelligence “ and thereby was catapulted to the forefront of the emerging field of learning psychology.

G. Stanley Hall – pioneer of modern psychology in America

- introduced new methods of obtaining information about children

- began the systematic use of questionnaire, now so widely employed.

- contributed the psychology of adolescence, a branch of

psychology for which his great work on adolescence (1904) laid the foundations.

- the foremost American advocate of intelligences as an inherited trait

- became enormously important among testers in America both because of the students he influenced and because he was the first to translate the Binet Intelligence Tests into English.

Jean Piaget – a swiss Psychologist who made a direct, careful, and systematic observation of children.

- began to form a view that revolutionize our understanding of

intellectual growth.

- formulated the most important and influential theory of cognitive

development, when children ask “ why” it is because they think

that each thing has a specific purpose.

- concluded that reality does not reach the individual from the outside world from but within, from his own logic, with his dependent on the structure on his mind.

- mind then is not passive “ tabula rasa “ as the 17th century English philosopher John Locke supposed, but operates on its environment. Child image of reality is not passive copy but an active reconstruction of the world.

Arnold Gessel – one of the first to advocate that growth and development

occur in an Unvarying sequence.

- made the mistake though of overgeneralizing from studying only a few children and presented an overly detailed “ map “ of development.

- said that in order to understand cognitive development, one must understand more about the process of growth.

James Sully – published his Outlines of Psychology with Special References tthe

Theory of Education in 1884.

William James – talks to Teachers on Psychology and to students on Life’s

Ideal in 1899.

Edouard Claparede – his Experimental Padagogy and the Psychology of the Child in 1905.

Heinrich E. Buchholz – founded the Journal on Educational Psychology in 1910.

Lewis M. Terman – first Beta, for testing recruits in World War I, 1917.

Educational Psychology in the Philippines

Educational Psychology – was first offered by the College of Liberal Arts of the University of the Philippines under the Department of Philosophy and Psychology.

Educational Psychology – is required in all educational curricula, both undergraduate and graduate.

- required in the present Bachelor of Science in Nursing curriculum. Undergraduate programs in psychology offer it is a required subject or as an elective.

- is useful in the development of curriculum, policy making, determination of method of teaching, determination of course content measurement and evaluation, management of educational system, evidence purposes, enhancement of community – school relationship, guidelines for classroom management, production – selection of materials appropriate for a grade level or curriculum and improvement of human relations in school.

Thomasites – arrived in the Philippines, teaching and learning in schools were carried on with foreign concepts as guidelines.

* The method of teaching, school administration, disciplinary methods, and educational innovations were literally copied from abroad. The trend has not abated in the decades that followed as returning scholars and educational consultants transplanted into the Philippines educational system what they learned in foreign countries.

Isidoro Panlasigui – who succeeded Agustin Alonzo to become the second chairman of the UP Department of Psychology.

Sinforoso Padilla – followed Panlasigui to the chairmanship of the UP Department of Psychology and established the first psychological clinic, the purpose of which was to provide vocational guidance and educational testing, particularly IQ Testing, to UP students.

Ludag – illustrates the sources of educational psychology in the Philippine setting

* Western tradition – theories and principlesof learning and of behavior that were developed in the west when relevance to learning and teaching are concerned;

* Indigenous Philippine Psychology – attributed to the theory advanced by Enriquez on the bases of early or traditional psychology, such as child – rearing practices and so called traditional values ( pakikipag – kapwa ), man and his thoughts ( diwa ), psychology of awakening ( pagbabagong – isip ), psychology of human behavior and abilities; social issues and problems and native language

* Current researches leading to the mainstream of educational psychology.

GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEARNER

Eight stages of development:

1. Pre – Natal - conception to birth

2. Infancy - birth to 2 years

3. Early Childhood - 2 to 6 years

4. Late Childhood - 6 to 12 years

5. Adolescence - puberty to 18 years

6. Early Adulthood - 18 to 40 years

7. Middle age - 40 years to retirement

8. Old age - retirement to death

Arnold Lee Gessel – most notable growth studies have been carried on at Yale and who studied development and adhered to the division strictly:

1. Motor behavior – refers to posture, ability to group movement, general coordination of the different parts of the body and more specific motor coordinations.

2. Adaptive Behavior – refers to the actions that reflect the ability to begin new activities and take advantage of earlier experience and closely related to intelligence.

3. Language behavior – implies all the ways of communicating with other people.

4. Personal – Social Behavior – included the child’s reactions to other people and to the cultural influences, adjustments to home life, to “ mine and thine” to social groups, and social conventions.

Learning – not always “improvement” in behavior.

- should be distinguished from changes that appears to be learned but are not

Theories of Learning

Edward Lee Thorndike – viewed the mind as a connection system which merely associates ideas.

- the greater the intellect, the greater the number of connections the mind is capable of making.

- offered the “Law of exercise and the “Law of effect as the two fundamental laws of learning

- used the term “belongingness “to describe the meaningful associations, those connections that are readily made because they seem to belong together.

- “spread of effects “determines whether training in one subject aids in learning another.

Proactive inhibition” – learning activity can even interfere with learning another

“Retroactive inhibition” – newly learned material can even prove descriptive to something already learned.

Forgetting – is not due merely to the passage of time but to intervening activity.

- developed the Laws that set forth the conditions under which learning best takes place. Three major laws:

* Law of Readiness – means that individuals will learn much more effectively and rapidly if they are ready – if they have matured to that point and there is a felt need.

* Law of Exercise – is similar to the law of use and disuse. As a result of continual practice, strength is gained, but as a result of use and disuse, weakness ensues. Clearly, that practice led to reward. Blind practice, with no knowledge of the consequences of the act, had no effect on learning.

* Law of Effect – most important law. The law of effect maintains that an individual will be more likely to repeat satisfying experiences than those that are annoying. If experience is annoying, the learner will shift to other, satisfying responses.

Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning – conducted a series of experiments with dogs that demonstrate the principle of the conditioned response. It is the pairing of the conditioned stimulus with unconditioned stimulus over long numbers of trials until the conditioned response.

Skinners” Operant Behaviorism – leading figure in “Behavioral Psychology”

- noted two types of conditioning : operant and respondent

Operant learning – results from an organism’s operating on its environment; whatever it does that proves instrumental in obtaining its objective.

- believes that education should maximize knowledge by doing through operant conditioning.

- insists that when students can answer questions in a given area, and speaks and write fluently about the area, then, by definition, they understand the area.

- a verbal repertoire is not a sign language – it is the knowledge.

- good teaching is the ability to arrange the proper sequence of reinforcements to make sure that these reinforcements are contingent upon students emitting the appropriate responses.

- also suggests that teachers should use techniques that produce meaningful behavioral changes. Favored to use teaching materials, programmed instructions, and behavior therapy for it can provide immediate reinforcement and help bridge the gap between the students behavior and more instant conditioned reinforces such as promotion grades.

- against the use punishment in the classroom, not because it will not control behavior but it may produce a host of negative emotional reactions.

- teachers cannot always wait for behavior to manifest itself; therefore they must sometimes shape the behavior of the individual by means of innovations such as videotape replay, such devices prove beneficial in reinforcing learning in large classes in which the teacher is unable to cope with all the individual problems that arise.

Hull’s Dive – Reduction Theory

Clark L. Hull behavior theory – means learning as response reinforcement occurring as a result of drive reduction.

- subjects learn the specific response that occurs when a drive or need – for food example is reduced. The response then becomes a habit.

Habit – strengthens with each added reinforcement or stimulus responses unit is the response is the fundamental law of learning.

“Mental constructs” or “intervening variables” – without either drives or habits the subject will not perform, for without habit strengths there is no knowledge of how to act and without drive there is no motivation to act.

- emphasizes that learning occurs when the individual adapts to the environment and that such adaptation is necessary for survival. When the needs arise, the individual survival threatened and the individual must act in a certain manner to reduce the need.

- the responses that the individual makes that lead to the reduction of the need are reinforced, resulting in habits or learning.

E.C. Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism

E.C. Tolaman – creator of “Purposive Behaviorism” a bridg between rigid behaviorism and doctrinaire gestaltism, offered a cognitivist theory of learning

- called purposive behavioris because Tolman insisted that far from being random and chaotic , learning is goal directed, the learning organism is a striving organism.

MENTAL HEALTH

Mental health – defined as the ability to adopt oneself satisfactorily to the changes and problems met within life. By mental hygiene, it means measure taken to maintain and foster good mental health.

Significant Factors of Mental Health in Psychology:

1. Problems of social adjustments were introduced into psychology primarily because of the influence of Freudian psychoanalysis.

2. Realization that disturbed children need help before they can be expected to do practice to their regular school work.

3. Belief that the school should not only provide an environment that promoted the mental health of its children, but also teach appropriate social responses as part of its curricular responsibility.

Symptoms of Maladjustment:

1. Escape - may take the form of excessive daydreaming, withdrawal from school work or group activities and tardiness and truancy.

2. Aggression – Aggressive behavior, because of its overt nature, is familiar to everyone and is likely to be punished; this usually increases the resentment and aggravates the problems.

Niel Miller and John Donald – a group of Psychologists in the late 1930s introduced the now famous frustration – aggression hypothesis.

- “the occurrence of aggression always presupposes frustration” this hypothesis is obviously valid. They have seen people very angry, sometimes to the point of irrationality, over having a goal blocked.

Psychological Approach to Discover Causes:

1. Parental cooperation may be sought and curriculum adjustments made.

2. Provide counseling to change the pupil’s perceptions.

3. Breakdown undesirable habits and substitute more satisfactory methods of response

4. Provide deep therapy, cases through psychological or psychiatric clinic.

Techniques for Controlling Aggression:

* Create a non permissive atmosphere

*Limit aggressive models

* learn to evaluate frustrating situations

* Help children

* Use inductive discipline

* Teach and reinforce behavior incompatible with aggression

* Use nonhurtful ways of dealing with aggressive children

* stop persistent aggression by intervening and by attending to the victim

* Be attentive in routine play situations

* Work with parents

Styles of Leadership and Its Effects in the Learning Process

Style Effect

Authoritarian Direction( domineering, * produces more aggressive

Strict, stern, discipline and aggression behavior and less cooperative

but well organized) behavior

* prone to dissension but an atmosphere of discipline is conducive to success.

Permissive Leadership(democratic, flexible, * produces more satisfied, more

And creative in approach ) cooperative less hostile and

better able to carry on group

activities when leader was not

present.

Laissez – Faire ( absence of control) (passive ) *leads to slackness and lack of

Initiative

* teaching is inadequate for a

student who often times is

ensure of what to do.

*Effective leader must learn to spot what the group needs in a given situation and flexible enough to provide diverse types of behaviors that are required under different conditions.

Kurt Lewin – contributed the study of interrelationships among members in different kinds of small groups ( Group Dynamic )

Jacob L. Moreno – contributed the role playing which aims at therapeutic treatment of individuals and their relation to the group. (Psychodrama )

- aims a better understanding of the attitudes of individuals and

their relation to the group ( sociodrama )

- technique to measure the likes and dislikes of group

members of each other. ( sociometry )

Individual Differences

Factors influencing differences among learners:

Age family

Sex community background

Sex differences – disturbance in growth and sexual maturation are caused by too late or early, too strong or weak, too slow or rapid activation of hormonal processes and variations even within the normal range are considerable.

Biological factors like anatomical, physical and physiological differences between boys and girls may lead to psychological differences.

Aspects of Personality in which Learners show wide Variations

Physical Conditions – various parts of the body do not grow the same rate nor do they reach maturity simultaneously.

- rapid physical growth and changing physical proportions

are important factor in a person’s achievement of a position within his own group.

Emotional Response and Attitudes - no two learners are alike in their degree and kind of emotional tendencies.

- no two learners are alike in degree and kind of emotional response to people and things about them.

- teachers need to recognize the importance to the learner of the effects of his own emotional nature upon learning success.

- it is important for every learner to develop desirable emotional control, since emotional responses are determined largely by the fulfillment or denial emotional control.

Mental Abilities and Specific Aptitudes

- teachers must have an understanding of the principle of intelligence and some means of measuring of intelligence and some means of measuring the intelligence level of their pupil if they are to present meaningful learning experiences.

- general intelligence is made up of several primary mental abilities

Mental abilities - ability to do arithmetic problem, verbal meaning, spatial perception, word fluency, memory and perceptual speed.

Cognitivism – a major contribution of the cognitivists was the selective preparedness hypothesis

- an organism must have the necessary psychological predisposition and mental equipment, in order to make appropriate behavioral responses.

- there must be “species specific” characteristics

- normal human being samples from the environmental information around him and the operates upon his data in some ways.

- his operational system will depend upon many things; his goal, his past, experience, his energy level, and the resources available to him.

Berlyne – extended his theory of exploratory motivation, that a conceptual conflict, induced by collative variables will move a person to resolve it in order to restore himself to comfortable state of arousal, to explain epistemetic.

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