Monday, September 22, 2008


I consider this topic as the easiest since it is presumed that all of you here are at present supervising and administering a school so it is imperative that you must be cognizant of what is happening in the education sector.

Though the easiest, this area has the most number of reading materials to peruse, not only the basic documents where orders, memoranda are based but also on some presentations prepared by specialists, other articles which might help understand better what the program/project/activity is all about so one can be prepared on what consequential effect will happen on its implementation – the least we can do is to have some research about documentary research.

So, before we can arrive at the current trends and issues – let us be reminded of how the current came about. I was accepted to DepED in the 1970’s. May I start there?














Philippine Constitution

Education Act


Philippine Constitution

Education Act


Presidential Proclamation

Philippine Constitution

Education Act


Presidential Proclamation

Executive Orders

RA 9155

Executive Orders

DepED Orders

EFA 2010









Development of Competencies in the eight

subject areas – different names


Different Grading/Rating System

Non-Formal Education

PRODED/ lesser subject areas

Flexi time

School-Based Management





Let us not forget that all orders, be it executive and/or department orders were given because of survey results/test results. In the case of PRODED – the basis was the SOUTELLE, with BEC, the PCER findings, in the Decentralization Program (School-based Management), the basis are the TIMMS and NAT results.

Although conceived before, the implementation of the decentralization program was put into action piece by piece and was fully implemented when RA 9155 was passed into law. Some provisions found in RA 4670 – Magna Carta for Teachers which complement the provisions in RA 9155 are still in effect, so all our programs. Projects and activities are anchored within these two laws.

In 1998, Sec. Andrew Gonzales started to delegate some of his authorities to the Regional Directors, such as the Renaming of Schools D. M. No.386 s. 1999, D.O. No. 50. s. 1999 Revision of Authority to the RD and SDS on Certain Personnel Management Functions, D.O. No. 51, Delegation of Authority to Regional Offices.

In 2001, when Secretary Roco assumed the position, he supported the delegation of authority and had highlighted his incumbency with the implementation of the BEC. As shown a while ago, we already have in the 1970’s, general then, CPS, then NESC/NSEC then BEC which until now is being used. The features of the BEC is interactive and integrated… values is not taught as a separate subject integrated in the different subject areas. Another major change is highschool math which shifted to the linear sequential approach (elem. algebra for 1st yr, intermediate algebra for 2nd year,etc.)He championed the cause of the teachers by enforcing that all contributions be voluntary, and that payment of Teachers’ paycheck shall be given to the teacher concern DECS Order No. 35 s. 2001. D.O. No. 20 s. 2002 Reducing School Activities and Non-Instructional Activities and Maximizing Time for Learning, D.O. 23 s. 2002 Availment of Internet Access in all Division Offices, D.O 25 s. 2002 Implementation of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum. That was also when we have a new Performance Appraisal System, but under the stewardship of USEC Bacani and the organization of Pre-School Classes under the PreSchool Contracting Service.

Under Secretary de Jesus, D.O. No.37, s. 2003, Revised Implementing Guidelines of the 2002 Secondary Education Curr. Effective 2003-2004 was issued revising the following: Time Allotment and Unit Credits, Medium of Instruction, Grading system, Promotion and Retention, Sample Report Card, R.A. 8525 Adopt a School Act of 1998 under D.O. No. 66 s. 2003, D.O. No. 67, 2002 BEC Implementation in the Private Schools Remains Optional, D.O. No. 69, DepEd New Logo, D.O. No. 70, s. 2003 Revised Grading System for Elem/Sec. Schools, D.O. No. 71, 2003 Delegating Authority to the Regional Offices. Approval of Establishment, Separation of Annexes, Integration, Conversion and Renaming of Public Elem/Sec. Schools, D.O. Guidelines in the Monitoring of DPWH Constructed School Buildings, D.O. No. 88, s. 2003 Textbook Exchange Programs D.O. No. 1 s. 2003 IRR of RA 9155.

Under Sec. de Jesus, his programs is known as the ROAD MAP OF DEPED


· Back to Basics: Return to the 3 R’s

· Six Directions

· 3 Signature Projects

DepED 3 R’s

· Raise Academic Standards

· Reduce Resource Gaps

· Reengineer Systems and Structures

Six Directions

· Stet Corruption

· Focus on Outcomes

· Reward Performance

· Promote Community Capacity-Building and Empowerment

· Reinforce Convergence Strategy

· Leave No One Behind

Back to Basics: Return to the 3 R’s

Reduce Resource Gaps

· Negotiate continuing increase in budget

· Rationalize Special Education Fund support

· Tap congressional PDAF

· Mobilize private sector resources

· Tap international grants/loans

Mobilizing Private Sector Resources

· Encourage PTCA support

· Adopt-A-School Program

Adopt-A-School Program

· The Adpot-A-School Program is an innovative and pro-poor program of the Philippine government that gives the private sector the opportunity to become partners in education by providing assistance to public elementary and high schools.

Based on R.A. 8525, otherwise known as “An Act Establishing the Adopt-A-School Program”

Adopt-A-School Program


· Infrastructure

· Teaching Skills Development

· Learning Support

· Computer and Science Lab Equipment

· Food and Nutrition

· Donor’s Choice

· Consultancy Support

Tap International Grants/Loans

· World Bank



· AusAID

· UN Habitat

Back to Basics: Return to the 3 R’s

Reengineer Systems and Structures

1. Reaccreditation of private lending institutions

2. Management of Provident Fund

3. Schoolhouse Constructions Specifications

4. Regionalization of Payroll System

5. Localization of MOOE

6. Central Office Functions and Organization

Back to Basics: Return to the 3 R’s

Reengineer Systems and Structures

7. Communication Systems

8. Personnel Processes

9. Database Files

10.Canteen Management

11.Procurement Process

12.Textbook Policy

Back to Basics: Return to the 3 R’s

Raising Academic Standards

· Establishing performance benchmarks

· High School Bridge Program

· Reviving National Testing System

· In-Service Training

· Review of Teacher Training Institutions

· Review of Licensure Examinations

Establishing Performance Benchmarks

· Discarding transmutation tables

· Maintaining test item bank

· Test design and administration

Discarding Transmutation Tables

· Grades shall not be computed on the basis of any transmutation table that equates zero to a pre-selected base (such as 50 or 70) and adjusts other scores accordingly.

Redesigning Test Instruments

· Grades based on assessment that covers range of learning competencies specified in PELC and PSSLC. The test shall be designed as follows:

§ 60% easy items

§ 30% medium level items

§ 10% difficult items

Grading Process

· Scores shall be recorded as raw scores, totaled at the end of each grading period and then computed as percentages

· Attainment of at least 75% of the competencies is required to pass each subject

· Final mark based on average of the 4 quarter grades

High School Bridge Program

· Administer diagnostic test to incoming First Year High School students

· Placement based on results of the test

· Focus of remedial year on English, Math and Science

· Additional drills and exercises for student

Reviving National Testing System

· Test Design

· Test Administration

Signature Projects

1. Strong Republic Schools

2. Brigada Eskwela

3. Mainstreaming Madrasah Education


Strategy Document

Department of Education

April 2005

Schools First Initiative Indicators of SO:

Strategic Results Framework 1. Readiness for school at Gr. 1

2. Participation

Strategic Objective: 3. Completion

All Filipinos acquire basic 4. Achievement

education competencies 5. Functional Literacy-OSY &


IR1: All public schools implement School Improvement Plans

IR2: All 184 DepED Divisions implement local basic education plans with LGUs

IR3: All 17 DepED Regional Offices implement regional basic education support plans

IR4: DepED CO provides policy and program climate supportive of quality basic educational outcomes for all

Strategic Objective:

All Filipinos acquire basic

education competencies

IR1: School



-School head leadership








IR2: Local

BE Plans


Based plan

-Local programs in


-Support to




IR3: Regional

BE Support Plans

-Region-specific issues

-Support to IR1 or IR2

-Measurement of performance

-Partnership for teachers/

School head


IR4: Policy & Program Climate



-Budget reform




-Development of leaders for

BE reform

Preparing by examining the thinking about our work

· To change the quality of education requires a change in king of public schools

· But to change our public schools we must first change the thinking about the public educators who embody these schools

· What public educators are not but are treated as such

· Why are their hands tied, their decisions second-guessed, their actions policed

First Step: change the way we treat public educators

· Acknowledge as professionals

· Accord them with autonomy for learning and expertise

· Grant them control over resources they need to pursue excellence

· Demand from them & hold them accountable for responsible performance

· Provide them unending opportunities to learn, practice what they learn & increase their impact.

Actions indicated

1. Revised guidelines on teacher hiring

2. Delineate service areas of schools, conduct household survey of children 3-21 yrs old; use results to set school level targets

3. Guidelines on School Improvements Planning and school governance with school head training; new guidelines on school head promotion

4. Guidelines on local basic education planning of Divisions with LGUs.

5. Guidelines on regional support plans

6. Assessment of readiness for school of all Grade 1 entrants & use of results to feed back on plans for local ECCD coverage & feed forward to plans for Grade I to III instruction

7. Assessment of teachers and development of teacher development plans; setting up new infrastructure to support professional growth of teachers

8. Use results of household survey to prepare ALS plans with LGUs and others

9. Guidelines for upgrading reading skills and strategies of all students in public schools

10. Policies on regular standardized measurements of SO indicators, policy makers and public

11. Guidelines on re-orientation and re-tooling of supervisors to become instructional consultants and facilitators of SIP implementation

12. Guidelines on formative assessments to inform management and instruction

Important issues to confront

· Understand cognitive basis of formation of desired Filipino social identities and core ethical values

· Develop curriculum and instructional policies for building this cognitive basis

· Define classroom, school and community environment supporting student learning; policies creating this environment

· Specify assessment tools to make formative and summative measurements of actual learning

What should be happening at the school level?

· Stage 1: School head engages with stakeholders in school improvement planning

· Stage 2: School head involves existing organizations like PTCA in school improvement

· Stage 3: School head joins a group of people from among stakeholders who together embody leadership for school improvement

· Stage 4: Together school head and group form a School Governing Council to direct school improvement

What conditions should support moving into SGC?

· Division staff led by superintendent prepares for school improvement and makes each school ready for SGC

· School Head learns to lead school improvement and sees the wisdom of SGC

· Teachers, parents, students and community leaders support the school establishing its SGC

SGC created by the school

Co-chairs: school head and LGU representative

Members: two parents, male and female designated by the PTCA, teacher – elected by the teaching staff, student council head, NGO representative, nominated by the head and concurred by the teaching staff and all others selected by the group.

SGC Powers

Approve SIP; Use of funds; Policies; Official School Profile and Resolve school-level matters

Potentials of SGC

Broader ownership of Public schools

More leeway for viable local solutions

Greater resources for learning

Grassroots support as source of stability

School success depend more on results below than recognition from above

More votes for improvement than for patronage

School head backing and opportunity to lead

Relieves rest of DepEd to solve other problems

Risks of SGC

Power struggle and conflict among stakeholders

Abuse of Power/Self-interests

Possible resistance to policies

Distraction to educators/Diffusion of school head command responsibility

Possible misunderstanding

In General, Potentials attractive Risks Manageable

Considerable rewards for moving forward and better outcomes will fuel demand for greater changes.


DepEd is pursuing a package of policy reforms called BESRA to build upon the efforts of the SFI and to create a basic education sector that is capable of achieving the EFA objectives by 2015. BESRA focuses on five KRT’s to wit:

KRT 1 (Effective SBM Practice) Get all schools to continually improve – Schools shall be empowered to manage its own affairs and the best persons are the stakeholders directly involved in and affected by the school operation.

Progress indicators are:

1. increased number of schools with SIP prepared, implemented and monitored through a participatory process with its organized SGC

2. SIP meet specific quality dimensions in an SIP assessment instrument

3. increased levels of resources managed and controlled in the school level and

4. improved level of student performance based on results of national standardized tests.

KRT 2(Competency-based Teacher Standard)enable teachers to further enhance their contribution to learning outcomes

CBTS an organized way for teachers to more effectively help the students learn. It is both a guide and mechanism for teachers to continuously learn and improve and teach themselves more competent teaching practice, and expecting that such self-assessment will lead and link competent teaching practice to a corresponding improvement in learning outcomes of their students.

KRT 3 (Quality Assurance and Accountability Framework)Increase social support to further enhance desired learning outcomes

The QUAAF generates regular data-based feedback on actual learning outcome every school attains (BEIS and NETRC data) and provides support to meet the needs of the schools (MOOE, textbooks, trainings, SBP,etc).

KRT 4 (Outcomes-focused Resource Mobilization ) Improve impact on outcomes from complementary interventions involving ECCD, ALS, Private Sectors

Adopting Medium-Term expenditure Framework (MTEF) and the Organizational Performance Indicators Framework (OPIF) which defines the MFO of DepEd operations that generally corresponds to the main categories of learning outcomes.

Implement the National School Building Program

Enhance public-private Partnerships

Improve DepEd-LGU cooperation

Adopt sector-wide approach o coordinating donor assistance to basic education

KRT 5 Change institutional culture of DepEd to better support these key thrusts – Delineation of functions of the different levels

Central Office – Policy formulation

Regional Office-Monitoring and Oversight Function

Division and Schools – Implementation

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